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LXXV     BRITISH AND FRENCH MISSIONS     399
The British envoy, on his part, agreed to furnish
munitions of war to the Shah in case he was attacked by
the Afghans or the French. There were stringent pro-
visions for the expulsion and " extirpation " of any French
subjects who wished to settle in Persia. On the com-
mercial side it was stipulated that English and Indian
merchants should be permitted to settle free of taxes at
the ports, and that English broad-cloth, iron, steel, and
lead should be admitted free of duty. Thus Malcolm's
first mission ended in complete success. Rawlinson, it
is true, regards it as a failure inasmuch as it revealed to
Persia our anxiety about "the. road" to India. Although
I realize the force of his objections, I am inclined to think
that the Persians, who are remarkable for their political
acumen, have not, since the reign of Nadir Shah at all
events, required any tuition on the subject, and that to
have delayed on that account the opening up of relations
with Persia, or to have ,ignc3fed this important question,
would have been a mistake. At. the same time, the
clauses directed against the French''are certainly character-
ized by extreme bitterness which invites hostile criticism.
The Persian Embassfto India^ 1802.—Fath Ali Shah
sent a return embassy to -Bombay, headed by a certain
Haji Khalil Khan. Most unfortunately, the envoy was
killed in a quarrel which arose between his servants and
the guard that attended him. The English authorities,
who were much upset at the untoward occurrence, made
the most handsome amends,1 and the Shah is said to have
observed that more ambassadors might be killed on the
same terms.
Three years later Aga Nabi Khan, brother-in-law of
the late envoy, reached India as the representative of
Persia ; but the cc sultanized " Governor-General had left
India, profound indifference concerning Persia prevailed
at Calcutta, more especially after the disastrous ending to
the French campaigns in Syria and Egypt, and Aga Nabi
Khan returned home in January 1807 a disappointed man.
This policy of inertness, which took no notice of the
1 Ismail Khan, son of the envoy, was granted a pension of two thousand rupees a
month for life. He lived to enjoy this annuity for sixty-five years, and died in Paris,
where he attended every performance of the opera during a period of fifty years.